What is the most common agent of malaria in the Philippines?

Most malaria cases in the country occur in forested, swampy, hilly and mountainous regions. The majority (72%) of the cases are due to P. falciparum and 26% to P. vivax, while 1.3% are due to other unspecified species, and 0.7% are mixed infections.

What is the most common causative agent of malaria in the Philippines?

Malaria in the Republic of the Philippines is caused principally by P. falciparum and P. vivax, with the former as predominant species.

Which agent is the cause of malaria?

Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasite. The parasite can be spread to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes.

What is the most common type of malaria?

Plasmodium falciparum is the type of malaria that most often causes severe and life-threatening malaria; this parasite is very common in many countries in Africa south of the Sahara desert. People who are heavily exposed to the bites of mosquitoes infected with P. falciparum are most at risk of dying from malaria.

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What part of the Philippines is endemic to malaria?

The Department of Health (DOH) said that only four provinces in the country remain endemic for malaria. The four provinces are Palawan, Sulu, Occidental Mindoro, and Sultan Kudarat, the health department said in a statement.

What is the malaria risk in Philippines?

Malaria in the Philippines is endemic in 58 of the 80 provinces and nearly 12 million people, 13% of the population, are at high risk; the other 22 provinces are free of malaria. Most malaria cases in the country occur in forested, swampy, hilly and mountainous regions.

How can we prevent malaria in the Philippines?

Led by the national malaria control programme of the Department of Health, the Philippines has ensured a high coverage of effective malaria control interventions such as long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets and indoor spraying with insecticides across all endemic areas.

Which organ is most affected in malaria?

Beyond the brain, the lungs are the most affected organ in severe malaria. Lung dysfunction occurs in 20% of all cases of adults with falciparum [3] or vivax [27] severe malaria.

What is the best treatment for malaria?

ACT is a combination of two or more drugs that work against the malaria parasite in different ways. This is usually the preferred treatment for chloroquine-resistant malaria.

Medications

  • Atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone)
  • Quinine sulfate (Qualaquin) with doxycycline (Oracea, Vibramycin, others)
  • Primaquine phosphate.

3.02.2021

What are the symptoms of malaria and typhoid?

Signs and symptoms include:

  • Fever that starts low and increases daily, possibly reaching as high as 104.9 F (40.5 C)
  • Headache.
  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • Muscle aches.
  • Sweating.
  • Dry cough.
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss.
  • Stomach pain.
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3.11.2020

What are the 5 types of malaria?

What Are the Different Types of Malaria Parasites?

  • Plasmodium falciparum (or P. falciparum)
  • Plasmodium malariae (or P. malariae)
  • Plasmodium vivax (or P. vivax)
  • Plasmodium ovale (or P. ovale)
  • Plasmodium knowlesi (or P. knowlesi)

What are the symptoms of severe malaria?

What are the symptoms of malaria?

  • shaking chills that can range from moderate to severe.
  • high fever.
  • profuse sweating.
  • headache.
  • nausea.
  • vomiting.
  • abdominal pain.
  • diarrhea.

What does the malaria parasite look like?

Chromatin (part of the parasite nucleus) is usually round in shape and stains a deep red. Cytoplasm occurs in a number of forms, from a ring shape to a totally irregular shape. It always stains blue, although the shade of blue may vary between the malaria species.

Is the Philippines a malaria zone?

What is the risk of malaria in the Philippines? The Philippines is split up into three regions, which are Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao and all of these areas are considered low risk. However, in the cities and islands of Boracay, Bohol, Catanduanes, Cebu and Leyte there is no risk of Malaria.

Do I need shots to go to Philippines?

The CDC and WHO recommend the following vaccinations for Philippines: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, typhoid, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, meningitis, polio, measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis), chickenpox, shingles, pneumonia and influenza.

What is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis?

The gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria involves microscopy with visualization of Giemsa-stained parasites in a blood sample. Species determination is made based on morphological characteristics of the four species of human malaria parasites and the infected red blood cells.

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Notes from the road